In Linux, the main directories as as follows:

The root directory, the top-level directory in the FHS. All other directories are subdirectories of root, which is always mounted on some partition.
/binEssential command line utilities. Should not be mounted separately; otherwise, it could be difficult to get to these utilities when using a rescue disk.
Includes Linux startup files, including the Linux kernel. The default, 100MB, is usually sufficient for a typical modular kernel and additional kernels that you might install during the RHCE or RHCT exams.
Hardware and software device drivers for everything from floppy drives to terminals. Do not mount this directory on a separate partition.
contains the commands and the files that are necessary for the system administrator (files passwd, group, inittab,, lilo.conf, etc.)
Home directories for almost every user.
Program libraries for the kernel and various command line utilities. Do not mount this directory on a separate partition.
The mount point for removable media, including floppy drives, CD-ROMs, and Zip disks.
Applications such as the WordPerfect or Office suites.

Currently running kernel-related processes, including device assignments such as IRQ ports, I/O addresses, and DMA channels.

The home directory of the root user.

System administration commands. Don't mount this directory separately.

Temporary files. By default, Red Hat Enterprise Linux deletes all files in this directory periodically.

Small programs accessible to all users. Includes many system administration commands and utilities.
Variable data, including log files and printer spools.

Web Folder

Plesk – /var/www/vhosts/
cPanel – /home/
Shared – /web/content/ or /www
Windows –  data\websites
Linux –

Restart Common Services


/etc/init.d/service mysqld restart – Restart mySQL
/etc/init.d/service mysqld stop – Stop mySQL
/etc/init.d/service mysqld start – Start mySQL
service mysqld restart – restrart mysql
cat /var/log/mysqld.log – view log files for mysql


/etc/init.d/service psa restart – Restart Plesk
/etc/init.d/service psa stop – Stop Plesk
/etc/init.d/service psa start – Start Plesk


/etc/init.d/service httpd restart – Restart apache
/etc/init.d/service httpd stop – Stop apache
/etc/init.d/httpd start – Start apache
/usr/local/apache2/bin/apachect1 configtest – test apache


/etc/init.d/qmail restart – Restart qmail
/etc/init.d/qmail stop – Stop qmail
/etc/init.d/qmail start – Start qmail
/var/qmail/bin/qmail-qstat – View Mail queue
service qmail status – To see is qmail is running
Service qmail Stop or Start – To rerun qmail

vi /etc/courier-imap/imapd – Increase the number of IMAP connections
increase MAXPERIP= # – default is 4, set to something like 30


/etc/init.d/courier-imap stop – once done you can then restart the Imap courier
/etc/init.d/courier-imap start – Start Imapi
/usr/local/psa/admin/bin/mailmng –start-service –mail-component=imap,pop3 – disable pop and imap
/etc/init.d/postfix restart – Restart postfix
/etc/init.d/postfix stop – Stop postfix
/etc/init.d/postfix start – Start postfix

cd /usr/local/apache2/conf/v-hosts/ – domain alias

rpm -qa | grep soap – to see if soap is installed
yum install php-soap – install SOAP
yum upgrade php-soap – upgrade SOAP